MLA works cited list is a final component of your work, which contains a bibliographic description of the sources used and is placed at the end of your academic paper. The rules for the design of the works cited list are very strict and must be carefully followed in order to create a perfect paper. If you have to write a work in MLA format, you need to know more about its features. Here you’ll find a full guide for formatting your list of references in MLA style.
1. Key Elements
So you need to point out:
- year of
All of these are the main elements of the references.
You need to indicate them in the specified order.
2. Basic rules for arranging references
According to the MLA standards, the list of
bibliography should be named the works cited list. Let’s check out the basic design requirements.
- It should be placed on a separate page.
- It should be arranged in alphabetical order according to the authors’ names.
- If the writer is not known, including in the list the titles of the work or the organization responsible for the title of the source without taking into account both definite and indefinite articles
- First point out the surname and then other names separated by a comma.
- Internet nicknames are not forbidden
- Editors and translators are added here but their names should be marked with the notes “editor” or “translator”.
- The titles of the source and container should be italicized.
- If there is no source title, provide general information about it.
- If there are several dates of publication, choose exactly the option that you used in your work.
- If you used the same source but with different publication dates, list the editions in chronological order.
- If you want to include things that are not contained in the peculiar source, use square brackets in order to indicate them.
- If you have any doubts about any source element, put a question mark in their place.
- Double spacing and readable font are required.
3. Quotes in the text
In the MLA format, a reference to the author’s quote
in the document is provided briefly and clearly so that the reader can easily
find it in the list of used literature. The source of information is indicated
in parentheses in the format “author-page”. This means that only the
name of the author and the page number from which the quote was taken should be
given in the text. Full information on the source must be presented in the
works cited list.
The name of the author can be given either at the
beginning or in parentheses after a quote or paraphrase.
Take a look at the examples:
Dover expressed concern that…
Concern was expressed that…
What if there are several authors?
If the source you are using has several authors, you
must indicate their names in parentheses:
This hypothesis (Merton and Smith
The theory (Sumner, Rachel, and
Vaud 23) explains…
What if the author is not specified?
If there is no author of the work, use a short variant
of the working title in the text. Check out the examples:
Book: The Idea of a University points
out “…” (74) or (The Idea of a University 74)
Article: “An Approach to Instilling Confidence” points
out “…” (16) or (“An Approach to Instilling Confidence” 16)
What if several sources from the same author are used?
Specify a shortened option of the book name in
parentheses: (Edwards, The Healing Intelligence 145)
What if there are a few authors with the same second names?
Where it happens, write the first letter of the
author’s name: (H. Edwards, The Healing Intelligence 145)
What if it’s not possible to specify a page?
Instead of a page, you can specify a section or
Reference to the chapter:
In chapter 3, Henderson suggests… or (Henderson, ch.
Reference to the certain paragraph from an online
(Fox, par. 4-5).
How to cite quotes?
Write an abbreviation “qtd.” in front of the author’s
name to indicate his or her exact quote:
(qtd. In Edwards 145)
How to cite audio and video materials?
If you use video or audio materials, accurately mark
the time of the quote that you give in the text:
4. Ways to cite various kinds of sources
The citation in the text depends only on whether the
author is known or whether the source is multimedia. The list of references is
greatly dependent on the kind of source.
How to arrange book references in MLA style
Books are the main type of source, so you need to know
how to arrange book references correctly.
Thus, all you have to do is to remember a specific
pattern: A surname, name, title, edition, place of publication, publishers,
publication date. Take a look at the example:
Soars, John G. Headway Pre-Intermediate,
3rd ed, Oxford University Press, 2013.
- The title should be written in
Italics with all the words capitalized.
- If there are more than 1
author, their names should be specified in order with the conjunction
- If necessary, you may indicate
translators and editors.
How to arrange references of translated books in MLA style
In this case, the only difference is that you need to
specify the translator. There are two
options for how to do this:
Let’s check out good examples:
1. Redman, Stuart., translator and Jane
Rothberg. The Handbook of Technology Foresight: Concepts and Practice.
Cambridge University Press, 2011.
2. O’Connell, Sue. Focus on IELTS.
Translated by Mary Keenan, Oxford University Press, 2017.
In the same way, you can specify the editor.
How to arrange electronic book references in MLA style
An electronic book is perceived as another variant of
the book. Thus, the e-book identifier is introduced in the version section of
the sample of the standard book reference. Certain e-book providers may be
referred, for example, kindle, may be referred to as “kindle ed.”.
Thus, the citation scheme is as follows:
A surname, name, title, e-book, edition, place of
publication, publishers, publication date.
Miles, Ann J., et al. Patterns of Innovation
in Services, e-book. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2010.
How to arrange references for a chapter in MLA style
The chapter reference in some details varies from the
usual book one.
Thus, you need to point out the chapter title as well
as the certain page numbers.
Saritas, Oliver D. “National Strategy”. Systems
Thinking for Foresight, Manchester: University of Manchester, 2016, pp.
How to arrange article references in MLA style
The reference scheme for the article is very similar
to the previous version.
In this case, you need to add the title of the newspaper (or another source like DoMyWriting.com).
Thaler, Richard H. “From Homo Economicus to Homo Sapiens”, Journal
of Economic Perspectives, Vol.14, no.1, Winter 2015, pp.55-63
5. Ways to cite non-print media
Very often non-print media are used in academic
papers, so you need to know the rules for quoting them.
Pictures in MLA style
The main scheme for citing the picture is as
The last name of the photographer or creator, other
names. “Title of picture”. Site title, reproduction, date, URL.
Lindbergh, Peter. “Kate Moss”, BBC, Upstate New York,
Movies in MLA style
The main scheme for citing the movie is as follows:
Director name, “Title”, releaser,
Also, you can add actors, performing the leading
roles, but this is optional.
Cameron, James, director. “Titanic”. Paramount
Keep in mind that if the main interest for your papers
is not the director but the movie itself, you can swap their positions. Then
you obtain the following format:
“Title”, directed by (name), releaser,
If you cite an online movie, indicate URL.
TV Shows in MLA style
The scheme for citing is almost the same as the movie
reference, but the difference is that you need to specify the season and
“Title of the episode”, TV Show Title, creators,
directors, season, episode, network, release date.
“A Knight of the Seven Kingdoms”, Game of
Thrones, written by Bryan Cogman, directed by David Nutter, season 10,
episode 2, HBO, 2019.
Music records in MLA style
The scheme for citing the record is as follows:
Performer’s name, “Track Title”, Album,
version, label, release date.
The Beatles. “All You Need Is Love”. Magical
Mystery Tour, Parlophone, 1967.
6. Ways to cite websites
The scheme for citing the website is as follows:
Author’s surname, name. “Page Title”, Website Title,
Khadka, Navin S. “Cut air pollution to fight climate
change”, BBC, 20 Sep. 2019
The correct design of the MLA works cited list is extremely important for your scientific paper. Follow our guidelines and your work will be fully appreciated.