Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is abbreviated as IEEE. IEEE
format represents a citation format for a numbered reference list where numbers
in square brackets are provided. In the latter part of the paper, a complete
reference is given, adjacent to the citation number.
source of data, for example, ideas or quotes, has to be acknowledged in your
paper. Any reference number is written in square brackets on one and the same line
with your text. This is known as an in-content reference. Toward the finish of
your paper, the full reference details of the source are supplied.
article provides you with detailed practical information on how to use the IEEE
citation format in your reference list.
writing guide helps students to format the assignment correctly .
is absolutely no doubt that  represents one of the most…
 there are multiple sources…
as previously stated, 
as proved by Miller 
Using multiple citations
favored technique for referring to more than each source is posting every
reference number independently with a dash or comma between every reference:
is noticed that numerous sources can also be written as found in some texts:
The introduction of work [4, 5, 1], [4–3], [4, 13–18] defines …
Using secondary sources
use of secondary sources is not allowed in the IEEE style. If your goal is to
refer to the thoughts or expressions of a writer found in the text that you
haven’t read, yet have found out about it in another text (for instance in case
you need to make a reference to David’s work found in Mirt’s), at this point
you have to find the original source with this data (David’s) and cite the
original source. If you have no possibility to find the original text, it ought
not to be referred to.
How to cite the source many times
case you need to use one of the previous references, don’t give it a new
reference number, don’t use ‘ibid.’ (‘the identical’) or ‘op.cit.’ ( ‘the
original text referred to’) terms. If you need to bring up a source two times
or on numerous occasions, basically use once more the preceding reference
number and after that use that equivalent number in every single reference all
through the main part of your academic writing.
you need to point out different parts referring to one and the same work, for
instance, when referring to a peculiar fact, consideration or theory form the
same source found on various pages, you should use the next forms: [8, pp.
4-9], [9, eq. (8)] reference to an equation, [3, Sec. II] a section, [6, Tab.
8] a table, [5, Ch. 8] a chapter, and so forth.
Short forms of months
denote months you can use such short forms:
Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec.
should take into consideration the fact that several months are not shortened.
If you need to use a bi-monthly source, you should use a slash (Aug/Sept 2014)
or an en run for a quarterly (June– July 2013).
should acknowledge in your paper all the data you have mentioned, for example,
cites or borrowed thoughts. When you use the IEEE referencing format, [X]
with a number is used where you refer to some work. The complete information on
the original text [X] is given at the end of your paper. Quotations and
references are given in the order they are used in your academic paper.
How to cite works used in the text
case you use the IEEE format of citing in the text, they are denoted by figures
in square brackets, which relate to the corresponding sources in the references
list at the end of your project. The numbers of in-text citations begin at
 and proceed in increasing order all through your writing– except cases when
you mention the work you have previously referred to when you should use the
recently appointed number.
case you use in-text reference numbers, it should be given in square brackets,
positioned on the content line, between punctuation marks, there must be a
space in front of the bracket:
depend on the amount of liquid in the blood .”
possible to use citations as “in …”, as a substitute to “in reference 
Moreover, citations may be treated in a sentence:
- as footnote numbers
stated by Williams  …
further recommendations, see , , .
stated before , –,  …
et al.  have written…
- or as nouns:
mentioned in  …
accordance with [8, p. 12], it is clear that…
shown in  …
far as the authors are concerned, their names should be used as follows:
 has stated…
, and Roy and Astir  have written …
et al.  stated that they couldn’t find out why …
case we cite more than three names, use et al. (
‘and others’) after the first name in the text. Et al. is
usually not italicized if it is used in in-text citations. If you use it in the
references list, you should mention all the authors and for up to six authors’
names, you must write et al. in case the names are
not mentioned. Et al. should be also used in the
list of references for more than 6 names:  J. A. Sonet et al., International
Science New York: Jefferson, 2015.
should not name the authors of the source or give the time of publication in
the text (e.g. “in Ramet ” need to be changed to “in ”) excluding cases
where the name is necessary for the clear sense of the text (e.g. “Ramet 
suggested an overview of literary sources on the problem”).
you need to change the in-content numbers of references, you are required your
list of references to be renumbered. All the in-content references that you
provide in your project have to match correlative items in your list of
of formatting references in IEEE style
every academic work, the author provides a numbered list where all the
information of the sources that were used is contained. All the entries of such
a reference list have to be provided in the same order they are cited in the
text of the paper, that is, starting with , and proceeding in numerically
ascending order. Note, that in all these cases the entries of the references
list are not provided in A to Z order.
To formatting quotations in IEEE style is easy
prove something with the use of the precise words and word combinations as in
the source direct quotes ought to be used. In such cases we put citations in
single quotation marks and the reference is put between square brackets following
the quote or following the author’s name with page numbers.
Example of a shorter quote:
et al. have written that ‘we distinguish between low-pressure headaches and
high-pressure headaches’ [27, p. 121].
Example of a longer quote:
we use quotations of three lines and more, we set the block of quoted text as a
paragraph. We use small font size for block quotations, indent them from both
of the advantages of using e-commerce is to make informational products quickly
and sell a necessary amount of copies to as many customers as possible. In this
case, possibilities to reach out to the world. Content is the king and we live
in the world of electronic content, that is our possibility to share useful
information and to build a useful business. [5, p. 78].
normally use the in-text citation between square brackets after the quote with
a number(s) of the page of the source that you consider necessary to quote.
in our list of references to keep to the standard should always give page
numbers if you are referring to an exact section or chapter:  B. Deksden,
“Making use of sunflower oil,” in Green Planet Publications: Wiley-IEEE
Press, 2012, pp. 12-54.
How to paraphrase in IEEE
you paraphrase some text or quotation, that is, explain a thought or an event
found in a source, in other words, you also should provide a reference. You
usually give your citation number after and not before the reference: For skin
to stay young and healthy you need to keep it well hydrated , drinking a
lot of water, using moisturizer in the morning and in the evening, consuming
healthy food rich in vitamins -.
usually don’t page numbers for paraphrases; however, we can give them the
citation number inside the text of the paper if you are referring to a
particular hypothesis or thought in a source, or in the references. This
provides a possibility to find the particular data you use in your academic
paper. In longer parts of an article, book or another source, we don’t use any
page number. For example: If we speak about the speed of any website, we should
take into consideration that it is influenced by the number of images and their
size [6, p. 34], amount of advertisement 
numbering in IEEE format
normally provide the page number(s) in the in-text reference in case you give a
direct quotation. To use page number(s) is not a must: (1) if you provide a
reference to the whole source, (2) if you paraphrase or summarize a longer part
or (3) if the paper consists of one page. Nonetheless, in the event that you
are rewording, giving a summary or referring to a particular hypothesis or
thought in the text, you can still give a page number, a page range or the
section number along with in-text references, as this allows the reader to
locate the necessary part, particularly if that it is in a long or complex
text, or if you have to refer to the source several times. The number of the
page or a range of page numbers can, on the other hand, be pointed out in the
references list to help to identify the place in a source where the data is.
Also, remember that giving page numbers may not be available for some
is cited as p. for one page or pp. for multiple pages.
page … as demonstrated in [5, p. 17]
pages … as noted in [5, pp. 18-21]
… as seen in [9, para. 9.2]
… as argued in [6, Ch. 2, pp. 7-13]
… as shown [13, Example 3]
Section … as suggested in [5, Sec. 2.3]
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The IEEE format is mainly used in the USA and includes special rules as far as the publication data in the list of references is concerned. You should stick to the following guidelines when you mention the place of publication.
to use the name of the place of publication element within the reference
The source is published in the U.S., the place of publication not widely known
Abbreviationsor the states: CA for California, NJ for New Jersey and so forth city, U.S. state: publisher example: Chester, NJ: Chester Pub. Co.  W. Sinnema, Digital, Analog, and Data Communication. Reston, NJ: Reston Pub. Co., 2014.
is published in the U.S., the place of publication is widely known
In case, with widely known cities you need not mention a U.S. state well known city: publisher example: New York: Computer Science  B. M. Sze, Principles of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2014, p. 84.
published in any country outside the U.S., the city of publication is not well
city, country: publisher example: DorHarlingen, Netherlands: Harlingen A Science Publishers  M. J. Smith, Modern Information. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2011.
For books published in the rest of the world, publication city well-knowncity: publisher example London: London Press  K. Capova et al., Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation (XVII), Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in IEEE
A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a peculiar numerical id that may be given to any text, or a digital book (ebook). A DOI is an alphanumeric sequence that denotes an existent permanent link to its URL. We should provide DOI if possible, in doi:xxxxx format. If we cannot provide any DOI of an electronic book or a text, we should point out a database provider through which the source is available. It is advisable to shorten the source’s URL to its shortened version just to point out the major provider.